Battles of Panipat History
Haryana has a very proud and remarkable place at the national level, legally and historically. Particle of Haryana tells the story of bravery, self respect and struggle. Mahabharata’s ‘Dharma-Yirdha’ was also fought in the Kurukshetra ground on the holy land of Haryana and here, Lord Krishna gave Arjuna a new direction by giving a ‘Gita’ precept to the whole world. In the same way, Panipat district of Haryana also holds its own place in the mythological and historical terms at the national level. To avoid the war in the Mahabharata period, one of the five villages that Lord Krishna requested for Pandit son Yudhisthara in the form of a peaceman was one of Panipat. From a historical perspective, there were three historical battles fought on the field of Panipat who had changed the fate and picture of the whole country. The third and final historical battle of Panipat was 250 years ago on 14 January 1761 between the Maratha generals Sadashiv Rao Bhau and Afghani Senanayak Ahmed Shah Abdali. Although the Marathas were badly defeated in this battle, the whole country is proud to remember and commemorate the glorious historical tales of the Maratha bravery, self respect and struggle of the Marathas.
The three battles of Panipat have left an indelible impression on the table of history. At the end of each battle, a new era was inaugurated. After the first battle of Panipat, the story of the end of the Lodi dynasty and the founding of the Mughal empire was written. After the second battle, the history of empowerment of the Mughal Empire and the end of the Suryavans was written. The Third Battle also gave the gift of defeat to the Marathas and Ahmedshah Abdali in the history of writing his name in golden letters, along with establishing the authority of the East India Company. While every fight of Panipat introduces us to the bravery, self-esteem and struggle of the Indian heroes, at the same time, constantly warns against huge blunders such as mutual divide, selfishness and impartiality.
Battle of Panipat 1
The Mughals emerged in the first battle of Panipat, which used the most powerful powers in Indian history. This was the oldest Indian war in history, in which gunpowder firearms and regional forces were used. The battle took place between two big powers, Babur, then ruler of Kabul and King Ibrahim Lodhi of Delhi Sultanate. It was fought near Panipat (present day Haryana).
Although Babar had a combat force of 8,000 soldiers and Lodi had 400 war elephants with about 40000 soldiers. Yet the main element is that the use of the cannon in the war zone for Babur proved to be very useful for him. In addition to fighting and defeating men, artillery was a powerful and a cause of disaster among them to scare the elephants. In the end, it was victorious of Babur and he established the Mughal Empire, while Ibrahim Lodi was killed in the war.
Second Battle of Panipat (1556)
In the second battle of Panipat, Akbar’s rule in India started, because it was his first year when he took over the throne of the throne. Action Akbar (ruler of the Mughal dynasty) and Muhammad Adil Shah (ruler of Pashto Suri dynasty) fought with his Prime Minister Hemu. In 1556, Akbar successfully assumed the throne of his father, at that time Mughal was spread in Kabul, Kandahar and parts of Delhi and Punjab. Hemu (Emperor Hem Chandra Vikramaditya) was the army chief of Afghanistan Sultan Mohammad Adil Shah who was the ruler of Chunar. Adil Shah wanted to end the rule of the Mughals from India.
Taking advantage of Humayun’s death, he succeeded in seizing Agra and Delhi’s regime without any difficulty, but the fight was not the end. Bairam Shah, who was the chief minister and patron of Akbar, stood with a large army in front of Delhi.
The war was fought in Panipat with strong rivals of both sides. Hemu’s 1500 warriors had a large army with elephants, Hemu was killed with an arrow in his eyes, he became unconscious, the army was scared to see his unconscious leader. The Mughals wore a crown with victory in battle and the end of the war.
Hemu’s head was cut off and a torso was made to go to Delhi to celebrate the glorious victory of Mughal victory. Thus, it was a cruel war that restored the strong Mughal Empire in which Akbar had a powerful rule to make history.
Battle of Panipat 3
The third battle of Panipat was fought between the Afghan and the Marathas. The war was important because it marked the end of Maratha dominance in India. During this war, Afghans were under the leadership of Ahmad Shah Abdali and under the leadership of Bajirao Peshwa, Marathas controlled control in northern India. During the eighteenth century, the defeat of the Marathas in the Battle of Panipat saw a new beginning of colonial rule in India. The main reason for the defeat of the Marathas in the war was that the associates did not cooperate due to their cruel behavior during the previous years of rule. The Sikhs, Jats, Awadh states, Rajputs and many other all important rulers were very troubled by the behavior of the Marathas. The third battle of Panipat was fought between the Black Age and Sunauli Road of the present period. Both the armies went into the lines, but intellectually, Afghanistan had cut all the possible lines for the Maratha forces.
Cannons were included in the Maratha army, they protected themselves with the help of infantry, bowman, gun-clad soldiers. The cavalry was instructed to wait for artillery and saddle-hold bandwagon. And they were ready to fight when the control of the battlefield was fully established. There were thirty thousand youths behind the line, who were not experts in fighting and thirty thousand were civilians.
In this civil line many men, women and children of middle class were included who traveled to the holy places and temples and for pilgrimage of Aryan (Aryan land). Behind the civil line, there was another protective infantry line consisting of relatively young and experienced soldiers. On the other hand, in the third battle of Panipat, the Afghans formed a similar type of army, the left wing made by Najib’s Rohilla and the right center built by two brigades of Persian soldiers. Two high officials, Shuja-ud-Daulah and Ahmad Shah, were at the center of the left hand, controlled by Vijir Shah. In the proper center, Rohilla, under Hafiz Rahmat and other chiefs of the Indian Pathan were involved.
Choice Khan led the left side, which was composed of well-selected Afghan riders. In this way the army went ahead with Shah in the center so that he could see and control the war. The battle lasted for two months, which finally ended the dominance of the Marathas and India gained prominence.