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Civil disobedience movement
In 1930, the Civil Disobedience Movement started under the leadership of Gandhi, following the independence day, which started with the famous Dandi March of Gandhiji. On March 12, 1930, 78 other members of Gandhiji and ashram from Sabarmati Ashram, 385 km from Dandi, Ahmedabad Started a pedestrian walk to a village located on the western coast of India, far away. He reached Dandi on March 6, 1930, where he broke the salt law. It was illegal to make salt by someone at that time because the government had monopoly on it. Gandhiji disobeyed the government by taking the salt made from the evaporation of seawater. With the disobedience of salt law, civil disobedience movement spread throughout the country.
The incidents of making salt in the first phase of this movement took place throughout the country and making salt was the symbol of government defiance by the people. In Tamil Nadu, C. Rajagopalachari organized a March as Dandi March from Tiruchirappalli to Vedarnayam. Famous poet poet Sarojini Naidu, who was the Congress leader and also the president of the Congress, led a non-violent Satyagrahis’ March to the salt factory located in Dharasana (Gujarat). More than 300 people were injured in the lathi charge charged by the government and two people died. Sticks, strikes and exotic items were boycotted and later refused to pay. Millions of people including large number of women took part in this movement.
In order to consider the proposed reforms by the Simon Commission, the first Round Table Conference was organized by the British Government in London in November 1930. The Congress, who was then struggling for the independence of the country, boycotted it but representatives of Indian princes, Muslim League, Hindu Mahasabha and some other leaders participated in it. There was no conclusion of this conference. The British Government knew that no constitutional change would be accepted by the Indian people without the involvement of the Congress.
In the beginning of the year 1931 by Viceroy Lord Irwin, efforts were made to prepare the Congress to participate in the Second Round Table Conclave. Finally, an agreement was reached between Gandhi and Lord Irwin, under which the government was ready to leave all the political prisoners who had not filed any lawsuit against them and the Congress had also agreed to postpone the civil disobedience movement. Many nationalist leaders were not happy with this agreement.
In March 1931, this agreement was approved by the Congress in the Congress session under the chairmanship of Vallabhbhai Patel in Karochi and the Congress participated in the Second Round Table Conclave. Gandhiji was elected as a representative of Congress to participate in this conference in September 1931.
Important proposals related to fundamental rights and economic policy were passed in the Congressional session of taxation. It created the policy of nationalist movement related to the social and economic problems prevailing in the country. It was described in the original rights which would be provided to all the people without discrimination of caste and religion. In addition, nationalization of certain industries, encouragement of Indian industries and schemes for the welfare of workers and farmers was also supported in it.
This proposal demonstrated the increasing influence of socialist ideas on the national movement. Apart from Gandhiji, who was the sole representative of the Congress, there were some other Indians who participated in this conference. These included Indian princely states, Hindu, Muslim and Sikh communal leaders. This leader was the puppet of the hands of the British. The princely states were mainly interested in securing their interests as rulers.
The British rulers had selected communal leaders to attend the conference. He claimed that he is representative of his own communities or not the country, although his influence in his own community was very limited. As representative of Congress, Gandhiji represented the whole nation. Neither the princely states nor the communal leaders were interested in India’s independence. That is why no compromise was reached in the Second Round Table Conference and it was declared unsuccessful.
Gandhi returned to India and resumed the Civil Disobedience Movement. The suppression of the government continued even during the convention and now it was even faster. Gandhi and other leaders were arrested. The suppression of suppression by the government can be estimated from that about 120000 people were put in jail in a year.
The movement was withdrawn in 1934. The Congress passed an important resolution in 1934 which demanded that the elected constitutional meeting be convened on the basis of universal adult franchise. It was declared that only such a meeting could create a Constitution for India. It was also said that only people have the right to decide what type of government they want to live under. Although the Congress did not succeed in achieving its goals but it was successful in covering a section of people in the country’s second largest mass movement. It also accepted the revolutionary goals to bring about change in Indian society.
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