The Indus Valley Civilization was an ancient civilization, which is now located in north-western India of Pakistan, which spreads over the fertile plain of the Indus River and its surrounding area. Evidence of religious practices in this area is approximately 5500 BC. Farming started around about 4000 B.C. and for the first time in the year 3000 BC, signs of urbanization were seen there. By 2600 BC, dozens of towns and cities were established, and according to the Radiocarbon dating, between 2500 and 1750 BC the Indus Valley civilization was at its peak of progress.
Harappan culture & Mohenjo-daro Lifestyle.
Two great cities, Mohan Jodro, Harappa were located in Punjab and Sindh along with the Indus River valley in approximately 2600 BCE. Evidence shows that he had a life of a highly developed city. Many homes had wells and bathrooms, as well as an extensive underground drainage system. These cities used to demonstrate a well-planned urbanization system.
There is evidence of connection to the level between the Indus Valley civilization and the near East. According to historians, there was a close business and cultural relationship between Indus Civilization and Sumerian civilization. In the Sumerian evidence, the name Sindhu civilization is referred to as “Dilmun”. Even in the Sumerian and Mesopotamian civilizations, the use of bricks, brass and copper, graphical seals, etc. was also popular.
Sindhu was a writing system of civilization, which still remains a mystery. All efforts have failed to understand this. The Indus Valley Civilization was one of the important early civilizations of ancient times.
Another point of discussion is the nature of the relationship between these cities, whether it is an independent city-state or part of a larger state is not completely clear. Because the writing of the people of Sindhu was inefficient and neither the rulers’ statues and depictions of battles and military campaigns have been found, so the evidence pointing to both directions is not conclusive.
It is also believed that people of Indus Civilization had the knowledge of wheat, gram, gram, paddy and many other types of grains and also used to cultivate them well. According to some other evidence, he used to lodge all types of pets such as sheep, buffalo, goat, pigs, dogs, camels.
Fall or end of the Indus Valley Civilization.
By 1800 BC, the Indus Valley Civilization saw the beginning of their decline. Due to writing inefficient, standardized measurement was used for business and the use of taxation was discontinued. The relations with the nearby East were disrupted, due to this decline are not completely clear, but it is believed that the drying of Saraswati river started around 1900 BC, this was the main reason. A great flood in other specialist fields explains the cause. This incident had a terrible impact on the activity of agriculture, which could not sustain the economy and due to this the citizens of the cities also started breaking the order.
Around 1500 BC, a large group of infusions, Aryans moved from Central Asia into this area. The Aryans crossed the Hindu Kush mountain and came in contact with the Indus Valley Civilization.
Thus, the Indus Valley Civilization ended. During several centuries, the Aryans settled here slowly and they adopted the business of agriculture. Today the origins of the most widely spoken languages in South Asia have been brought by the Aryans, who introduced Indo-European languages in the Indian subcontinent.
Other features of modern Indian society, such as religious practices and caste divisions, could also be traced in the times of Aryan. Many pre-Aryan customs are still popular in India today. Evidence that supports this claim are also included. There is continuity of pre-Aryan traditions in many areas of Indian society and it is also probable that some of the major deities of Hindu deities originally originated at the time of Indus Valley Civilization and which were being “worshiped” by the native inhabitants for centuries.