World War I (BACKGROUND OF FIRST WORLD WAR).
The First World War of 1914-18 was the result of cross-cultural competition of imperialist nations. The most important reason for World War I was the Secret Pact system. In Europe the practice of secret treaty was introduced by German Chancellor Bismarck. It divided Europe into two opposing groups. The sense of suspicion and hatred towards each other between two factions increased. The political environment has become contaminated. In 1879, Germany signed a secret treaty with Austria-Hungary. Italy also joined this group in 1882 AD. Thus the formation of a threesome is formed. Germany and Russia were both found in 1887. France was left alone in the world political arena To humiliate France, Germany had a treaty with these countries. France was burning inside the fire of retribution. Therefore in 1894, France made a treaty with Russia. England, with Japan in 1902 AD, France in 1904 and France in 1907, in collaboration with Russia. Thus, in two political camps, Parta became the arena of Europe war.
CAUSES OF WORLD WAR I
Due to fierce nationalism, the status of World War I had arisen. In addition to the big and powerful nations, even small countries such as Greece and Serbia were addicted to fierce nationalism. They were demanding for Greater Greece, Greater Bulgarians and Greater Serbia. Czech, Slavic tribes were creating turmoil in Europe to fulfill their national aspiration. When Europe’s imperialist nation moves forward in the world to teach the lessons of its civilization-culture and religion, the struggle in them becomes compulsory.
2. ECONOMIC RIVALRY.
Industrial Revolution has resulted in great changes in the economic life of the nations of Europe. Capitalism originated. Capitalists started demanding colonization to impose additional capital. There was a need for colonization to settle the growing population. The solution to this problem was possible only by the empire-expansion. So the struggle started with colonization. An atmosphere of hatred and disbelief was created due to economic ambition among the capitalist nations.
3. Imperial Competition.
The imperialist spree was a fundamental reason for World War I. Due to the Industrial Revolution, the problem of obtaining raw material for the consumption of commercial goods and tomorrow-factories in front of European countries has arisen. The solution to this problem appeared in empire-expansion. Therefore, England, France, Holland, Belgium, Portugal, Denmark, Italy are trying to increase their empire. This led to increased international rivalry. Africa and China were prey to this rivalry. War broke out between England and France over Sudan.
4. MILITARISM AND ARMAMENT.
Fierce nationalism and imperialist attitude attracted the attention of Europe’s nations towards militarism and armament. France, Germany, etc. 85 percent of their income, the imperialist nation started spending on preparations Fear and suspicion triggered each nation to submit war material and thus each country got ready for war.
5. False publicity of newspapers.
Newspapers from all countries before World War I were boggling on each other. This seemed to hurt each other’s national sentiment. Sometimes, during the controversial question between the two nations, it was criticized in newspapers that it had a bad effect on the public.
6. FRENCH REPRESENTATION FRENCH (FRANCE’S REVENGE SPIRIT).
The unification of Germany was completed by defeating France. France had to lose the region of Alsace-Laurén. France did not forget national insults and wanted to take revenge from Germany. Germany was opposing France in Morocco. From this, there was a twist in both.
7. International Anarchy.
There was a kind of international lawlessness spread in Europe at this time. Each nation was violating international norms. Any country could contribute with its opponent to protect its interests. This policy of selfish nation gave birth to paradoxes. There was no international institution to stop this situation due to its lack of which all the nations were arbitrarily.
8. SARAJEVO ASSASSINATION.
The immediate reason for the war was the murder of Prince of Austria (Archduke Franz). Was murdered in Bosnia (Bosnia) capital of Sarajevo (Sarajevo). The Austrian government declared Serbia responsible for the murder of Prince and kept 12 stringent conditions before him. Serbia’s government has shown its inability to obey all the conditions. Serbia’s government wanted to solve the problem by a conference of superpowers. But Austrian politicians and military officials did not pay attention to Serbia’s prayer. The Austrian government announced the war on July 28, 1914 and ordered its army to invade Serbia. This was the beginning of World War I. The end of the war took place on November 11, 1918.
Some facts of world war 1
1.The First World War began with the invasion of Serbia on 28 July 1914 by Austria.
2.World War I lasted four years (1914-1918), in which 37 countries participated
3.The immediate reason for World War I was the murder of the Prince of Finland, Ferdinand in Bosnia, capital of Serajevo.
4.In the First World War, the entire world was divided into two camps: the Allies and the Axis nation.Germany led the Axis nations. Other countries included in Austria, Hungary and Italy etc.
5.The Allies included England, Japan, the United States, Russia and Fras.The father of the system of secret treaties was Bismarck.Threesome between Austria, Germany and Italy was built in 1882.
6.Serbia’s secret revolutionary institution was black hands
7.During the First World War, Germany invaded Russia on August 1, 1914 and attacked Frasze on August 3, 1914.
8.On August 8, 1914, England joined World War IOn April 26, 1915 Italy joined the Allied War on behalf of Allies.America was President Woodrow Wilson at the time of First World War.America joined World War I on August 6, 1917.
9.After dipping a vessel named Lucentania of England by the U-boat of Germany, America joined the First World War, because of the 1153 persons killed on that vessel, 128 were Americans.
10.In the First World War, the German army first used fire throw cannon. His fire throw can fire up to 130 feet.
11.6.5 million people of 30 countries participated in World War I out of which 10 million people were killed. Out of this, the Allies had lost 6 million soldiers and 40 million soldiers from Axis forces.
12.Two people were killed in 3 people in the First World War. Most of these deaths were due to illness.
13.In August 1914, the German army carried Aerschot. In 150 people were killed by shooting. These mass murders were done under a policy called Schrecklichkeit or Horror. The aim of this massacre was to spread panic among the people on the living areas so that no one could dare to rebel.
14.During the First World War, British Tank was initially divided into Male and Female. Male tank was used as a gun whereas female tank machine was gun.
15.Little Willie was the first original tank in World War I. This tank was constructed in 1915, which could accommodate three people and could run at a speed of 4.8 km.
16.The Pool of Peace is a 40-feet deep lake near the Mason’s in Belgium. A crater was built in this lake in 1917, when the British had exploded in a 45 tonne mine.
17.The most successful aircraft driver in the First World War was Manfred Albrecht Freiherr, who had killed 80 planes, which was the highest in any aircraft driver in World War I.
18.During the First World War, dogs were used as messengers who used to exchange orders with capsules connected to their bodies.
19.Big Bertha was a 48 tonne whistler (a gun) used by the German in World War I. The gun could fire the 930 kg sphere of up to 15 km. However, it took more than 200 hours for people to assemble it for more than six hours.
20.The tank was initially called Landships, although for the purpose of separating them from the water tank, the British used the code name “Tanks” which remained forever.
21.Some Americans initially were protesting about the United States being involved in World War I, so they later joined the French Army.
22.During World War I, one-third of total military deaths were due to the Spanish flu.The total cost of the first B.Sc. of the United States was more than $ 30 billion.
23.Thousands of soldiers were damaged and crippled after the First World War, and some of them lived in the hospital.
24.The First World War was the sixth deadliest battle in world history.After World War I, four empires Ottoman, Austro-Hungarian, German and Russian were scattered.
25.The first world war that lasted from 1914 to 1918 was fought on every ocean and almost every island. Although most of the war was fought at places in Europe.
26.During World War I, Russia raised 12 million troops, which was the largest army in the war. Three quarters of his army soldiers were either killed or injured or lost.
27.The United States took part in the Second World War in the last year when more than half the war had taken place.
28.France was the first country to use tear gas in World War I against its enemy army. These tear gas grenades were thrown against them in August 1914.
29.During the First World War, Germany disposed 68,000 tons of gas, while British and French forces disposed 51,000 tons of gas. Over 1.2 million soldiers were affected by gas from both sides, of which about 91 thousand soldiers were badly killed.
30.About 30 different types of toxic gas were released during the First World War. The soldiers used to wear wet clothes of urine on their face in an emergency. In 1918 gas masks were distributed to the security forces.
31.During the war, the ship was sent 7.5 million tons of goods to support its friendly country France. Inside there were 70 thousand horses or mule, along with about 50 thousand trucks, 27 thousand karns and 18 thousand engines were included.
32.For the first time in the First World War, a large number of machine guns were used, out of which a machine gun, Maxim, weighing 100 pounds, could sculpt 450 to 600 rounds in one minute.
33.There were 35 million civilian casualties in World War I. Of this 15 million were killed and 20 million were injured.
34.More than 2 million African-Americans took part in World War I, of which only 11 percent worked as a combat force, but all workers used to lift things like ramps, make roads and digging tunnels.
35.In the First World War, more than 5 million pigeons were working as messengers, who used to send messages between headquarters from front line.
36.A British nurse called Edith Cavale treated many soldiers on both sides but was later killed by the German firing squad.
37.After World War (First World War) the number of men in Germany was so low that only one in every three women could get husband.
38.About 13 thousand Native American soldiers participated in World War I while they did not have the United States citizenship.
39.In the First World War a British soldier saved the life of an injured German soldier, the name of the injured soldier was Adolf Hitler.
40.The youngest man to be part of World War I was only 8 years old.In the First World War, British soldiers used to get six pintas in a day as a tea ration.
41.In the First World War, the Belgian King himself led the army while his queen worked as a nurse and the 14-year-old Prince was chosen as an assistant soldier.
42.Spain was depressed in World War I and World War II, but more than 5 million people were killed in the civil war that began in 1936.
43.Nobel prize winner Mary Curie tried to donate her gold Nobel medal for the war effort in World War I, but the French National Bank refused to accept it.
44.During World War I, New Zealand recruited 1 lakh soldiers in its army, which was 10 percent of the total population.
45.The first and last British soldier to be killed in the First World War was buried only 15 feet away.About 80 million horses were killed in the First World War and those escaped were sent to the Slaughterhouse in Belgium because they were no longer fit for any other work.
46.After World War I, Finland, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, and Poland emerged as independent nations.The biggest casualties of world history were on that day when 60 thousand British people were affected in one day.
47.Due to World War I, the United States emerged as the world’s largest military power.The end of World War I ended on 11 November 1918.
48.Peace conference was held in Paris on 18 June 1919, in which 27 countries were participating, but the terms of peace treaties were determined by only three countries Britain, France and America.